Adventures in Brown

The transition from the color riot of summer’s greens and early autumn’s red, orange, and yellow – that final stage before the world refines itself into the black and white of winter – is brown.

Late November is brown.  Or, more accurately, browns.

Today I had a scant half hour to get myself some much-needed wilderness time, and I chose a walk around Battle Creek Cypress Swamp, where all of November’s browns are on display.

It was like walking through a sepia-toned photograph, where everything held still or flowed slowly, like molasses.

The swamp was unearthly quiet; there were no sounds but for the thud of my own boots on the boardwalk, the trickle of water, and an occasional chirp between birds.  (Brown birds, no doubt.)

It was heavenly.  Brown is a highly underrated color.  Here are some shots from the trail that illustrate this point:

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The trail begins with a long staircase that spans the hill from the visitors’ center to the boardwalk.  This type of ecosystem is known as a Coastal Plain Bottomland Forest – it’s in the land that’s literally at the bottom.

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Browns abound.  From wispy stalks of dried grass to the carpet of cypress needles and other leaves, the landscape is warm and welcoming.

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I can already hear you arguing “those leaves aren’t brown,” but consider this:  Leaf color is really a factor of distance.  From inches away, these leaves were splotches of carmine red in a citrine yellow background.  From a foot or so away (and backlit by the sun) they appear dark orange.  From a few feet away, they’re brown.  And, just to fully finish blowing your mind:  brown(s) are actually just a darker shade of orange.

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Like a lichen, but not quite!  Lichen are green because they are an algae (which is a green plant) united with a fungus.  This is just fungus.  It’s called reddish-brown crust (Hymenochaete badio-ferruginia) – an on-the-nose common name if ever I saw one.

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When the eye isn’t distracted by a variety of colors, it can focus on intricate details, such as the texture of this tree bark.  I’m not 100% certain on the identity of this tree – it’s branches were well above my head and all tangled with other trees’ limbs – but I think it’s a dogwood. 

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Here’s a view back down on the swamp from the end of this circular trail.  Yes, I see the green holly leaves at the right and the golden gum leaves at center left.  Don’t they look wonderful against all of those browns?

And now, because it’s my blog and I can, a list of some of the beautiful browns I saw today:

acorn

tan

beige

caramel

walnut

maple syrup

copper

umber

russet

sepia

taupe

wheat

rust

auburn

otter

cardboard

mink

kraft paper

fawn

mahogany

cinnamon

football

clove

oatmeal

brown sugar

molasses

khaki

cafe au lait

terra cotta

Feel free to add some of your favorite browns to my long list by submitting them as comments!

Nature Girl Goes to the Beach: Part 1

Guess where I’ve been this week?

That’s right – I’ve been buried under piles of dirty laundry!

Two weeks worth of laundry, in fact, because we went on vacation to the beach last week.  I hate laundry.  But this was sooo worth it.

The mountains hold my heart and always will, but, in the summer, the ocean calls.  And, yes, I did make just a few nature observations in between swimming with my daughter and sleeping late and gorging on incredible seafood dinners.  The first and biggest observation I made was . . .

Moon Phases & Tides

The moon made the high tides and low tides incredible while we were at the beach!  This was  because we arrived on the night of the new moon.

The new moon, or “no moon” occurs every month (28 days, actually) when, from our perspective here on earth, the moon is directly between us and the sun.  The sun shines on the half of the moon facing away from us, and the moon rises and sets at the same time as the sun, so we see “no” moon at night.  During the new moon and, two weeks later, the full moon, when the Earth, sun, and moon are all lined up, the gravitational pull on the ocean waters (what makes tides) is greater.  This creates very high high tides and very low low tides, and that’s called “spring tide” because of how the tide springs forth so high.  (Has nothing to do with the season.)

Had we come to the beach at first or last quarter, the gravitational forces of the moon and sun would be split in two directions, causing unimpressive high and low tides, which is called “neap tide”.  The word “neap” seems to have no other applications in English and its origins are old and sketchy, so we’ll have to remember it not by logical association, but by repetition.  Neap, neap, neap, neap, neap.  (That’s no help, I’m picturing a frog calling.  Oh, well.)

Perhaps the drawings I made will help.  Emphasis on the perhaps.

The moon travels around the Earth once about every day.  Throughout the full moon cycle, though, it occupies many different positions with respect to the sun, and those different positions, from our perspective, make the moon appear to change shape because of what proportion of the moon is lit by the sun.

The moon travels around the Earth once about every day. Throughout the full moon cycle, though, it occupies many different positions with respect to the sun, and those different positions, from our perspective, make the moon appear to change shape because of what proportion of the moon is lit by the sun.

Here, the oceans are represented in the light blue layer surrounding the green Earth.  During the new and full moons, the oceans are pulled into spring tides, and at the quarter moon the tides are softened into neap tides.

Here, the oceans are represented in the light blue layer surrounding the green Earth. During the new and full moons, the oceans are pulled into spring tides, and at the quarter moon the tides are softened into neap tides.

For more diagrams of moon phases, simply search “moon phases” in Google Images.  For an even better explanation of tides, check out the MarineBio.org website.

In Part 2, we’ll discuss some of the flora and fauna at the beach, including schools, sargassum, and shells.

As soon as I get the laundry finished.

Looking Under Logs

I volunteer at the local nature center on Friday mornings, teaching preschoolers all about nature.  It is the highlight of my week, surrounded by the chaos of toddlers and tiny-legged runners, all ready to absorb and love whatever I enthusiastically share.

So, of course, in return for this love and mutual enthusiasm, I make them hold creepy crawlies.

Well, I don’t technically force them, but I do encourage and help (and cajole and convince) a lot.  In fact, I’ve gotten so many kiddos on board the “Creepy Crawlies are Cool” train that it’s become an expected part of our Friday mornings.  We play lots of different games in the nature center yard, but we never, ever forget to roll over a few of the logs and have a look underneath.

And here’s what we find:

Earthworms

A girl less than two years old holds an earthworm for the first time.  She was mesmerized!

A girl less than two years old holds an earthworm for the first time. She was mesmerized!

I love worms.  There, I said it.  Worms are amazing creatures not only for what they do – decompose organic matter such as dead leaves and turn it into rich soil – but also for their kid-friendly pick-up-ability.  (It’s my blog, I’ll make up whatever words I want.)  Worms do not bite or sting.  Worms do not even look like they could bite or sting.  They are not covered with scratchy scales or poky hairs; they are smooth and cool and wiggly.  And, when you put a worm in the hand of a little kid, it’s practically guaranteed that their eyes will grow wide and a joyous grin will spread across their chubby cheeks.  They’re doing it!  They’re holding a wild animal!  And it is awesome.

Wonderful worm facts:

  • There are hundreds of species of worms and they live in practically every environment on Earth.  The red worms we find in our backyard soil in North America are round, segmented worms, called annelids.
  • What’s that darker brown strip that runs through the middle of the worm?  It’s their gut!  You’re seeing through the body of the worm and all the way to those pieces of dead leaf that they’re turning into soil.  Yes, soil is made up of a lot of worm poo.  If you’re lucky; gardeners go dreamy eyed over high worm counts and will buy “castings” (that’s the science-y word for worm poo) to add to the soil because their plants will grow so much better.
  • Earthworms breathe through their skin.  This is why you often see earthworms on sidewalks and streets during heavy rain – the soil becomes saturated with water (soil is usually about 25% air) and the worms must tunnel up and out of the dirt to breathe.
  • Earthworms are hermaphrodites (I don’t usually share this fact with the preschoolers), when mating, two worms exchange sperm and both are fertilized.  Mating occurs on the surface of the ground, at night.  I think of it as “Earthworms After Dark” – cue the seductive lounge music.  Their “mommy and daddy parts” are located in the belt-like swelling around their body and eggs are produced there after mating.  The the eggs and sperm are later deposited into a vaguely lemon-shaped egg sac, from which tiny, fully-formed worms,

Ants

I have not yet captured a satisfactory picture of the ants we find under logs, so instead I'm sharing this photo I took of ants on a peony blossom.  Ask any gardener - if you want a peony bud to blossom, you'd better have ants attending it!

I have not yet captured a satisfactory picture of the ants we find under logs, so instead I’m sharing this photo I took of ants on a peony blossom. Ask any gardener – if you want a peony bud to blossom, you’d better have ants attending it!

Sometimes when we roll over a log we’ll find a colony of ants or termites busily moving around their underground nest.  Usually they are busy moving eggs.  Here in Virginia, we don’t have the invasive, biting fire ants that are common throughout much of the deep south, so we can feel fairly safe to squat down and observe the ants up close.  I would NOT have attempted that in our previous homes in Texas, Florida, or Louisiana!  A few amazing ant facts:

  • More than 10,000 different species of ants have been identified around the world.
  • Biologist Edward O. Wilson has made studying ants the majority of his life’s work, and his discoveries about ant society and behavior are mind blowing.  He’s also written an insightful novel centered around ants, Anthill, which I highly recommend for tweens and adults.
  • Ant colonies share some similarities with bee hives; both have just one queen who lays thousands of eggs and all of the workers are females, males have one job:  mating with the queen so she can keep laying those eggs.
  • Ants communicate with one another by means of chemical scent trails that can lead to a potential food source or alert the colony to danger.

Millipedes

This great close-up of a millipede on an adult hand was captured by Darkone and provided via Wikimedia Commons.  To hold a millipede, pick it up by gently pinching it between two fingers and place it on the open palm of the holder's hand.  The millipede may coil up, a natural defense mechanism, but will soon uncoil and walk all over the hand.  I like to have the preschoolers count seconds till the millipede opens.

This great close-up of a millipede on an adult hand was captured by Darkone and provided via Wikimedia Commons. To hold a millipede, pick it up by gently pinching it between two fingers and place it on the open palm of the holder’s hand. The millipede may coil up, a natural defense mechanism, but will soon uncoil and walk all over the hand. I like to have the preschoolers count seconds till the millipede opens.

The millipedes we find under logs in the yard are almost always much smaller than the millipedes featured in my previous post, A Moment for Millipedes.  They vary in size from about a half inch to one and a half inches, are about the width of a piece of acrylic yarn, and are so light that usually you can’t even feel them walking around on your hand.  Millipedes do not bite or sting, and are incredibly important to the ecosystem because they eat and break down dead vegetation such as fallen leaves and rotting logs. Some memorable millipede facts:

  • Though the Latin origin of the word millipede, milli for 1,000 and ped for feet would have us believe that all millipedes have that many legs, that’s a wild exaggeration.  Most millipedes have less than 100 legs (always two pairs per body segment, though) and the record-holder has just 750 legs.
  • Millipedes are long-lived among the arthropods.  They can survive up to seven years.  Sounds like a great pet – an aquarium with a lid, regular meals of rotting food, and you’ve got a friend for half of your childhood.
  • The fossil record leads us to believe that millipedes were the first animals to live on land.  A 428 million year old fossil of a millipede (Pneumodesmus newmanii) found in Scotland in 2004 is the oldest known animal to have body parts called spiracles (tubes that connect the inner body to the outside air) for breathing air.

Centipedes

This looks most like the centipedes we find under logs.  Not much bigger than the millipede, but with that orange/brown color and legs that stick out to the side.  This photo was taken by Thomas Quine and provided by Wikimedia Commons.

This looks most like the centipedes we find under logs. Not much bigger than the millipede, but with that orange/brown color and legs that stick out to the side. This photo was taken by Thomas Quine and provided by Wikimedia Commons.

What’s the difference between centipedes and millipedes?  There are many differences, but as a children’s nature teacher, the one I find most important is that centipedes can bite.  I have never been bitten, though I’ve had them crawl over my hand, but I still don’t advise picking them up.  The gentle pinch required to lift them may feel like an attack to a centipede (much like when King Kong picked up Fay Wray) and they may bite in defense.

Centipedes we find under logs also looked markedly different from the millipedes, so it’s easy to know which creatures to leave alone.  The centipedes have a decidedly orange tint to their exoskeleton, and their legs (one pair per body segment, if you’re counting) stick out from the sides of their bodies, whereas millipedes legs are neatly tucked beneath their bodies.

Centipedes are the hunters of the under-log world, and therefore move much faster than herbivorous millipedes.  (Carnivores need speed to attack.  A good comparison for centipede vs. millipede speed would be a wolf vs. a cow.)  Centipedes will eat small insects, snails, slugs, and worms.  A celebratory collection of centipede facts:

  • Just as millipedes don’t have 1,000 legs, centipedes don’t always have 100 legs,  though the number is usually between 30 and 360.
  • Centipedes can regrow legs that have been lost to birds or other predators with each new molt (shedding of the exoskeleton as they grow).
  • Over 3,000 species of centipede have been documented worldwide.

Slugs

In my greedy hand I hold not only a slug with partially-extended eye stalks, but also a light brown millipede crawling around the slug and a June beetle grub curled up next to it.  Yes, I am one lucky nature teacher!

In my greedy hand I hold not only a slug with partially-extended eye stalks, but also a light brown millipede crawling around the slug and a June beetle grub curled up next to it. Yes, I am one lucky nature teacher!

Ahh, the invasive leopard slug (Limax maximus).  Foe of the gardener and friend of the toddler who doesn’t mind slimy hands.  (The look on their parents’ faces when the tots joyfully hold up a palmfull of slug is excellent.)  We find lots and lots and lots of leopard slugs under logs.  These non-native creatures have done incredibly well here in the U.S., despite my mother’s valiant attempts at trapping them with old margarine tubs half full of my father’s Pabst Blue Ribbon.

I don’t grow veggies, so they don’t bother me much, and I have to admit to even liking them a bit after falling in love with the slug character Mub in the animated kids’ film Epic.  (Mub’s friendly insult to one of the human-like “leaf men”, calling him a “flat-face” was, in itself, epic.)  I encourage the kiddos to hold the slugs until they relax and extend their eyestalks.  Eyes at the end of long, antennae-like, telescoping appendages are just plain cool to kids of all ages.  Some super slug facts:

  • Slug eggs look like tiny tapioca pearls, and are frequently and easily found under logs or between the bark and core of a rotting log.
  • It’s plain to see that slugs and snails are related, but did you know that they’re also related to marine cuttlefish?  (Obviously the cuttlefish don’t react to salt the same way . . .)
  • Slugs are soil janitors, eating both live and dead plants as well as dead animals (omnivorous decomposers ain’t choosy) and digesting them into nutrient rich castings that enrich the soil.
  • The banana slugs that live in the Pacific Northwest of North America are the second largest slugs in the world, growing up to eight inches long!

Salamanders

Queen of the Salamanders holding three Eastern red-backed (Plethodon cinereus) salamanders in her hand.  She and her BFF, whose hands are just beneath hers, spent the morning catching the slippery fellows and sharing them with the younger kids.  They were very careful to put the salamanders back in the moist leaf litter before their skin dried out.

Queen of the Salamanders holding three Eastern red-backed (Plethodon cinereus) salamanders in her hand. She and her BFF, whose hands are just beneath hers, spent the morning catching the slippery fellows and sharing them with the younger kids. They were very careful to put the salamanders back in the moist leaf litter before their skin dried out.

In wet, cool weather, rolling logs and lifting the leaf layer on a forest floor may get you a glimpse of a salamander.  They are fast little creatures, and sunlight means danger in their world (a number of predators find them quite tasty, and to be seen is to be lunch), so it takes practice to snatch one up before it darts off and hides again.

I am, as I’ve said, very lucky when it comes to nature, though.  In this case, it’s because my daughter is a nature girl, too:  my daughter is Queen of the Salamanders.  She finds and catches them all over the place!  In one day at the Nature Center she caught a half-dozen!  I am one puffed-up, proud mama.

A selection of superlative salamander facts:

  • Salamanders are amphibians.  They breathe through their skin, and their skin must stay wet in order for them to breathe.  Though their cousins, the frogs, have lungs as adults, they also breathe through their skin when submerged in water.
  • Salamanders can regenerate limbs and tails that have been bitten off by predators within just a few weeks.  The hunter gets to eat the leg, but the salamander gets away.
  • Virginia is very special, salamander-wise, home to 49 different salamander species.  Many of these species are found in mountain woods, and the Virginia Appalachians are considered a salamander hotspot.  Check them out at the Virginia Herpetological Society’s website.

There are many, many more species to be discovered in and under rotting wood (this is why woodpeckers are always pecking holes in dead trees – there’s a buffet under the bark) but I think we’ll leave it here for now.  Today is National Get Outdoors Day, and that’s exactly what I’m going to go do!